By Carl D. Regillo MD

Studies the fundamental anatomy of the retina and diagnostic ways to retinal sickness. comprises vast examinations of problems of the retina and vitreous, together with disorder, irritation, hereditary dystrophies, abnormalities and trauma. Discusses laser treatment and vitreoretinal surgical procedure. final significant revision 2008-2009.

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Extra resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12: Retina and Vitreous (Basic & Clinical Science Course)

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Marmor MF. Variability of the human c-wave. Doc Ophthalmol Proc Ser. 1983;37: 151-157, part 8 reproduced Wi th permission of Kluwer Academic Publishers from GuPta LY, M armor MF Sequential recording of photic and nonphotic electro-ocu/ogram responses in patients with extensive extramacu/ar drusen. ) ably involves chloride conductance pathways. It does not always m irro r the EOG in disease, and its cl inical value is uncertain. It may show changes in cystic fibrosis, a disorder involving chlo ride conductance.

The EOG is most specific as a test for Best vitelliform dystrophy and thus is useful in evaluating any yellow lesions or macular scars that might be manifestat ions of this condi tion. Its use in evaluating diffuse RPE diseases is less clear, because patients who show an ab normal EOG usually show obvio us fun dus changes that are the main basis for the diagnosis. Some authors feel the EOG is a sensitive indicator of early ch loroqu ine toxicity, but others argue that mass electrical responses li ke the EOG or ERG are not sensitive to early toxicity.

The clinical sign ificance o f these nonphotic responses is uncertain, but they give inform ation about th e RPE independent of photorece ptor activity. Marmor MF. Clinical electrophysiology of the retinal pigment epithelium. Doc Ophthalmol. 199 1;76,30 1-313. Cortical Evoked Potentials Visually Evoked Potentials The visually evoked cortical potential (V ECP; also abbreviated VEl' or VER, fo r visually evoked potential or response) is an electri cal signal ge nerated by the occipital visual cortex in response to stimulati Qn of the retina by eith er light flash es or patterned stimuli (typically alte rnating checkerboards or stripes on a T V monitor).

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