By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Hermann D. Schubert MD

Presents an summary of the constitution and serve as of the retina and its courting to the pigment epithelium, choroid and vitreous. Describes the key vitreoretinal problems and applicable diagnostic equipment and remedy principles.

In its final significant revision, part 12 was once re-organized into 3 components. Separate chapters at the moment are dedicated to age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, together with the most recent imaging strategies and choroidal aspect. chosen healing issues comprise laser remedy and vitreoretinal surgery.

Upon finishing touch of part 12, readers will be capable to:

Select applicable tools of exam and ancillary stories for the prognosis of vitreoretinal disorders
Describe the foundations of scientific and surgery of vitreoretinal disorders
Incorporate information from significant potential medical trials within the administration of chosen vitreoretinal issues

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Extra resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous

Example text

As more fluorescein enters the space, the entire area fluoresces. A transmission defect, or window defect, refers to a view of the normal choroidal fluorescence through a defect in the pigment or loss of pigment in the RPE, such as shown in Figures 2- lA and 2- lB. In a transmission defect, the hyperfluorescence occurs early, corresponding to filling of the choroidal circulation, and reaches its greatest intensity with the peak of choroidal filling. The fluorescence does not increase in intensity or shape and usually fades in the late phases, as the choroidal fluorescence becomes diluted by blood that does not contain fluorescein.

The RPE cells generate a voltage from apex to base because of the different ionic permeability characteristics on each surface and the presence of impermeable tight junctions between the cells. Changes in the voltage across the apical or basal RPE membrane are reflected in the standing potential and are measurable clinically as the c-wave on ERG or with electro-oculography. M = Muller cells.

By adjusting stimulus conditions and techniques of recording, a representation can be made of the sequence of events along the visual pathway, from changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to cortical potentials of the occipital lobes. However, because an abnormality at a proximal location usually gives an abnormal signal farther along the visual pathway, test results can be misleading if interpreted in isolation from the clinical findings or tests specific to other areas of the visual pathway.

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