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Extra info for Adaptronics and Smart Structures: Basics, Materials, Design, and Applications
Active functional materialsmust be used for such purposes. For each energy form, there is a set of generalized conjugate variables consisting of a generalized force F and a generalized displacement S. They can be scalars, vectors and tensors. If one kind of generalizedforce can generate a displacementother than its own conjugate, the materialhas the ability to convert energy and is an active functional material. Crystal symmetry again determines whether some of the energy conversions are allowed in a particularcrystal structure.
Recent research has focused on using PZT actuators with sophisticated control systems in adaptronic structures to perform active acoustic attenuation, active structural damping, and active damage control. Hydraulic lines Solid-state hydraulic drive Rotary hydraulic actuator 12' PZTstack1 Adjustment screw b PZTstack2 Input block Diaphragm Containing vessel Hydraulic cfrcuits Fig. 2. The HAHDIS Mk 2 solid-state actuator: (a) proposed implementation for actuating a rotor blade active tab; (b) internal construction showing the two hydraulic chambers and the piezoelectric stacks  Magnetostrictive actuator materials are similar to piezoelectric materials, but respond to magnetic, rather than electric, fields.
2 Basic Principles of Functional Materials ZnO IGL 39 ZnO Bottom of conduction a Forward Reverse Fig. 3. Proposed electronic structureat a junction between semiconducting ZnO grains: (a) no voltage applied; (b) with applied voltage. J. M. Herbert ) simply the statistical average of the microscopic propertiesof each unit cell. For a majorityof the cases, however, such a simple average fails because of the nonlocal interactionsand the additionalmesoscopic structurescreated at the intermediatelength scale, such as domain patternsin single-crystal systems and grain structuresin ceramics.
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