By Edwin N. Frankel
The sphere of antioxidants has improved during the last six many years right into a wide array of multidisciplinary components that impact meals and health. the writer conveys the complexity of antioxidant chemistry by way of supplying an appreciation of some of the phenomena that impact oxidation and its inhibition in meals and organic systems. by means of emphasizing mechanistic points of antioxidants and lipid oxidation, he additionally makes an attempt to split proof from fiction via selecting the parts desiring extra study to enhance the knowledge of advanced antioxidant results and to stimulate greater designed technique and nutritional reviews for the future. Beginning with an creation to antioxidants and its chemistry, chapters discover antioxidant motion in multiphase platforms, protocols for meals and organic platforms, foodstuff antioxidants, antioxidants in biology and browing and glycation rection construction in biology.
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Extra resources for Antioxidants in food and biology: Facts and fiction
Mahoney, LR (1969) Antioxidants. Angew. Chem. Internat. , 8, 547–555. Mattill, HA (1945) Anti-oxidants and synergists. Oil and Soap, 22, 1–3. Medina, I, Tombo, I, Satué-Gracia, T, German, JB and Frankel, EN (2002) Effects of natural phenolic compounds on the antioxidant activity of lactoferrin in liposomes and oil-inwater emulsions. J. Agric. , 50, 2392–2399. Meyer, AS and Isaksen, A (1995) Application of enzymes as food antioxidants. Trends Food Sci. , 6, 300–304. 42 ANTIOXIDANTS IN FOOD AND BIOLOGY Palozza, P and Krinsky, NI (1992) β-Carotene and α-tocopherol are synergistic antioxidants.
Chemical quenching by reaction with singlet oxygen to produce stable products can be distinguished from physical quenching without undergoing chemical changes. 6 ×108 M–1sec–1). 8 × 102 M–1sec–1). 7 × 106 M–1sec–1) present in many plant oils at much greater concentrations than α-tocopherol are less efficient chemical singlet oxygen quenchers than α-tocopherol. The inhibition of photosensitized oxidation by β-carotene is complicated, because it is highly susceptible to photo-induced oxidation and is quickly destroyed in the presence of free radicals or hydroperoxides.
3. Formation of peroxy-cyclohexadienones and stilbene-quinone by oxidation of 2,6-di-tertbutyl-4-methyl phenol (BHT) (Bickel and Kooyman, 1953). in having a stoichiometric factor n = 2 or less. 3). ESR studies substantiated that the phenoxyl radical of BHT is formed by abstraction of the phenolic hydrogen. The stability of the phenoxyl radical increases with the number of ortho tert-alkyl groups, with a half-life of several minutes at room temperature. The stilbene-diquinone is the end product of BHT formed via the most stable ‘galvinoxyl’ radical because the electron is delocalized equally in both aromatic rings.
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