By Harrison, Peter; Wilson, Michael

This ebook is a pragmatic consultant to the detection and treatment of faults in claddings and fixings on constructions. It units out the issues excited about universal cladding structures for structures, and relates those difficulties to all of the fabrics used: stone, masonry, concrete and glass-reinforced composites

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Extra info for Appraisal and Repair of Claddings and Fixings

Sample text

4. Natural stone greater than 50 mm thick Failure of heavy natural stones may usually be attributed to the omission of cramps, the non-location of dowels or a lack of movement joints. The latter is a prime cause; the remedy is to 31 APPRAISAL AND REPAIR remove the stones and refix. Occasionally the stone may fail because it has been wrongly bedded, but this is rare. 5. Brickwork/timber frame Although not specifically covered in this book, some general points can be made about this combination. The important thing to watch is the relative shrinkage movement between timber and brickwork; this movement can be very substantial, and ties must be capable of resisting the loads specified as well as the degree of movement expected.

Lifting sockets should normally be linked to reinforcement, or have a bar through 35 APPRAISAL AND REPAIR them which laps with or is tied to the panel reinforcement. However, failures do occur. The example (Fig. 8) is of a lifting socket placed at a change in section of a unit, where the unit is lifted on 'brothers' which are too short. Additionally the lifting point is not placed on line with the centre of gravity. A similar example shows a shaped unit being incorrectly lifted, inducing such excessive stress that the sockets shear.

The metal should have sufficient strength to resist the applied loads with economy of section. The metal used should normally be specified from standard material thickness and width. Non-standard materials, apart from difficulty in purchasing, are also costly. The metal should have good workability and should retain its strength under working during manufacture. Cost is important in the context of design requirement, but it should be noted that price is not always of prime importance; integrity and safety should at all times be the main considerations.

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